Pulmonary embolism: Definition, Causation, Symptoms, X-ray

Pulmonary embolism

Definition

It occurs when a portion of a blood clot in a systemic vein or in the right side of the heart is discharged into the circulation and lodges in the main pulmonary artery or its branches.


Causation

Thrombosis in deep veins of the leg.
After pregnancy.
After pelvic operations in women taking oral contraceptives.


Symptoms / Signs

Sudden sensations of great oppression in the chest, intense dyspnea.
Cyanosis.
Fall in blood pressure.
Engorged neck veins.
Raised JVP
Accentuated pulmonary second sound.
Triple rhythm may develop.
In less severe cases transient dyspnea, tachycardia, or syncope.


Diagnosis

To achieve a diagnosis, the doctor will look at the patient's history and look for possible embolisms. They will do a physical exam. Diagnosis can be challenging because some conditions have similar symptoms.

Tests to determine whether pulmonary embolism includes:

A statistical model that helps physicians predict Reliable source of DVT course and risk of embolism
D-Dimer test, a blood test that can test whether thrombosis can produce further tests if it produces a negative result.

V / Q scanning of the lungs, two tests that analyze airway and lung structures and radiation under CT
computerized tomography (CT) scan, which can reveal abnormalities in the chest, brain, and other organs, and in cases where V / Q does not occur.

Electrocardiogram (EKG), recording the electrical activity of the heart.

Studying blood gas, measuring oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases in the blood.

X-rays on the chest, producing a picture of the heart, lungs, and other internal organs.

Ultrasound of the legs, measuring velocity and any changes.

Angiogram of the lungs, to produce blood clots in the lungs.

Resonance imaging (MRI), to obtain detailed images of internal structures.


Treatment (Expert Homeopathy: Dr. Anutosh Chakraborty)

Prevent clots from growing

Prevent new clots from forming

Destroy or remove any existing clot

The first step in multidisciplinary therapy is to manage anxiety and provide oxygen therapy.

Some anticoagulant medications, such as heparin or warfarin are often given to help reduce blood pressure and prevent further obesity.

People who need anticoagulant medication should seek treatment with an anticoagulant administration service, not their primary care physician.

Anti-inflammatory drugs called thrombolytics can also be given. However, these have a higher risk of bleeding. Thrombolytics include Activase, Retavase, and Eminase.

If a patient has low blood pressure, dopamine can be given to increase blood pressure.

The patient will usually need to take the medication regularly for a period of time, usually for at least three months.


Prevention

Many measures can reduce the risk of pulmonary embolism.

A high-risk patient can use an antiretroviral drug such as heparin or warfarin.

Leg pressure is possible, using thick socks to combat embolism or pneumatic pressure.

Other ways to reduce the risk include exercise, regular exercise, a healthy diet, and quitting or avoiding smoking.

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