Meningitis



Definition
The name of covering of brain is called meninges, when it is inflamed, then called meningitis.
The inflammation of the pia and arachnoid membrane.


Name of brain covering
from inside to outside
  1. Pia mater
  2. Arachnoid mater
  3. Dura mater


Classification
  1. Commonest cause: Pneumococcus in adults, H. Influenza in children. 
  2. Predisposed: Alcoholic, sickle cell disease, Hodgkin's lymphoma, splenectomy.

Types of inflammation
  1. Sterile
  2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  3. Poliomyelitis
  4. Carcinomatosis


Infective
Purulent
  1. Meningococcal
  2. Pneumococcal
  3. Streptococcus and staphylococcal

Non Purulent
  1. Viral 
  2. Tubercular
  3. Fungal

Chronic meningitis by typical mycobacteria, spirochetes.



Acute pyogenic meningitis
  1. Etiology
  2. Pneumococci
  3. Streptococci
  4. Staphylococci

Source of infection
  1. Middle ear infection
  2. Droplet infection form naso-pharynx
  3. Cerebral abscess
  4. Embolism
  5. Head injury

Meningococcal meningitis

Etiology: It is the most common type of pyogenic meningitis. It spreads by droplet infection and enters the body through nasopharynx and subsequently carried to the blood stream via choroid plexus.

Onset: Sudden, may occur in epidemics

Symptoms
  1. Onset is acute with headache, pyrexia and rigors
  2. Pain in back with headache involving neck also
  3. Projectile vomiting
  4. Generalized flexed attitude
  5. Convulsions at the onset especially in children
  6. Photophobia
  7. Irritability, confusion and drowsiness

Signs of meningeal irritation
  1. Neck rigidity
  2. Kernig's sign: If thigh is flexed at 90 degree from abdomen, it is impossible to straighten the knee passively due to spasm of hamstring muscles
  3. Brudzinski's sign: Passive flexion of a thigh causes spontaneous flexion of opposite thigh and flexion of neck causes flexion of hips and knee on both sides

Investigation
  1. CBC
  2. CSF: Increased pressure
  3. Gram negative diplococci (culture positive)
  4. Protein contents raised
  5. Glucose content is lowered
  6. CT, MRI might be needed in case of mass lesions

Complication
  1. Hydrocephalus
  2. Permanent blindness due to optic atrophy
  3. Insanity
  4. Septicemia
  5. Hyperpyrexia
  6. Acute adrenal failure
  7. Hemiplegia of paraplegia
  8. Aseptic meningitis

Management
  1. Patient should have to go health care center
  2. Control fever or pyrexia
  3. Hydration to be maintained
  4. Blood pressure and adrenal function needs monitoring

Homeopathic medicines

Apis Mel 30: It is the great medicine for meningitis, where convulsions, stiffness of neck, roiling of head and bores heads into the pillow

Belladonna: Violent and sudden onset with throbbing headache, high feverish state starting during sleep.
head drawn backwards and rolls from side to side.

Helleborus: Here in this medicine, there is complete unconsciousness, picks lips and cloth, rolls head 24 hours with moaning, sudden screaming.

[NB: Must call physician for this disease]

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post