Jaundice

Jaundice
INTRODUCTION
It is a yellowish discoloration or pigmentation of the skin, mucosa, and sclera or whites of the eyes for the increase within the serum bilirubin levels. the traditional serum bilirubin level 0.2 - 0.8 mg/dl, when the extent increases up to 2 mg/dl then it's called latent jaundice and above of two mg/dl is named jaundice.

CAUSATION and kinds OF JAUNDICE


Hemolytic Jaundice
Autoimmune disease
A congenital defect in R.B.C
Poison
Erythroblastosis foetalis [ Rh incompatibility ]
Incompatible transfusion
Chronic infection
Idiopathic

Hepatocellular Jaundice

Deficiency of special food factors
Viral hepatitis
Immature enzyme mechanism liable for the conjugation of bilirubin
Common in premature infants
Congenital defects within the mechanism of transport and conjugation of bilirubin
Toxins
Liver disease or injury

Obstructive Jaundice
Obstructive jaundice occurs as a result of an obstruction within the common bile duct. This restricts bilirubin emitting from the liver.

The actual causes are Calculi, Ascariasis and Bile thrombus
Obstruction within the wall of duct, Stenosis
Infection like Tuberculosis
Pancreatitis
Tumors of Ampulla of Vater
Obstruction outside of the duct
Congenital or acquired
Carcinoma of pancreas

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Hemolytic Jaundice
Increased sterco and urobilinogen
Lemon yellow staining
Spleen enlarged
Urine turns dark on standing
Liver functions not disturbed
Pruritus or itching doesn't occur
Anemia from mild to severe consistent with hemolysis
Total serum bilirubin but 4 mg/dl
Reticulocytes increased

Hepatocellular Jaundice
Jaundice could also be mild or very severe
Liver becomes palpable
Spleen could also be increased
Stool becomes paler and urine dark
S.G.P.T is elevated
Enlargement of cervical lymph gland and may be tender

Obstructive Jaundice
Yellow staining of sclerae and skin
Clay-colored stool
Pruritus present
Anorexia and a metallic taste in the mouth
Steatorrhea or excessive amount of fat in the stool
Dark urine due to the presence of bilirubin
Rarer conditions that will cause jaundice to include:
Crigler-Najjar syndrome: this is often an inherited condition that impairs the precise enzyme liable for processing bilirubin.
Dubin-Johnson syndrome: this is often an inherited sort of chronic jaundice that forestalls conjugated bilirubin from being secreted from the cells of the liver.
Pseudojaundice: this is regularly an innocuous kind of jaundice. The yellowing of the skin results from more than Beta-carotene, not from more than bilirubin. Pseudojaundice normally emerges from eating enormous amounts of carrot, pumpkin, or melon.
COMMON SYMPTOMS OF JAUNDICE
Yellow pigmentation of skin and sclera of eyes
Itchiness
Pale stool
Dark urine
Abdominal pain and weight loss
Vomiting
Fever
Fatigue

NEONATAL JAUNDICE
Neonatal jaundice is common in newborn babies. It results from the breakdown of red blood corpuscle causes a yellowish pigmentation of white a part of eyes and skin. If the extent of bilirubin is quite a 10 mg/dl, concern, in an otherwise healthy baby. When it crosses 20 mg/dl, it crosses the brain barrier and it's a worrying case. Generally, light therapy is enough to come down to a normal level. it's subsided in two or three days automatically. it's totally physiological jaundice. quite 80% of babies are affected after birth. But Hypothyroidism, Infection, or disorder may cause neonatal jaundice sometimes, so need treatment consistent with the condition.

INVESTIGATION

Liver function test
USG of Abdomen
Liver Biopsy
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography [ERCP]
Complete blood count [CBC]

MANAGEMENT
Total bed rest
Diet should contain more carbohydrates, protein, and fewer fats
Plenty of oral fluids, Glucose, lemon water

HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES
CHELIDONIUM MAJUS -- Chelidonium 6X is an extremely effective medicine where constant pain under the inferior angle of the scapula of the right side. Face yellow with a bitter taste. Prefer hot food and drinks. Jaundice thanks to the gall bladder and hepatic disease. Alternate diarrhea and constipation

CARDUUS M -- Cauduus Q is another good medicine for jaundice especially affected in the left side of the liver region. The gall bladder is affected and high color stool is. vomiting, Urine also golden colored.

CARICA PAPAYA -- Carica papaya Q is given where the liver and spleen are both enlarged. dyspepsia and indigestion.

KALI MURIATICUM -- Kali Mur 6x may be a biochemic medicine specific to liver problems.
NB: Physician's consultation is usually got priority.

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post